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Article III

vign4_A_3_all
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An outline of host cell wall alterations or modifications in Dutch elm disease-infected elms, with emphasis on young tissue
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A type of review of already published observations of cell wall modifications in elms affected with the Dutch elm disease and, at the same time, of links with the preceding two papers are presented herein. Thus, slightly affected vasicentric cells in the secondary xylem reacted by depositing new lucent or opaque layers that were of greater density beneath pit membranes. Walls of tyloses present in these tissues were characteristic of young tissues and when they were altered, which was often the case, it was similarly as in those, in relation with opaque matter. A noticeable thickening of pit membranes and even of vessel layers occurred in some cases, which seemingly was associated with lighter attacks of adjoining cells. Degradation of pit membranes of half-bordered pits was noticeable as their shredding into opaque bands and granules, in close contact with F-cells or with opaque vessel wall linings. Pronounced wall thickenings in adjoining parenchyma cells could again be observed. Similar wall modifications also occurred in recently deposited cells in the cambium and phloem regions next to invaded vessel elements, this being most outstanding following recurrent infection. Wall ingrowths stemming from the native cell walls or of their thickened portions were noticeable in some cells. These wall features, even in pith cells, were again observed to be associated with the occurrence of opaque masses or bands of opaque matter. This matter, which in many cases extended from the cell periplasm into its content, displayed pinhole-like elements, whose occurrence will be described at greater length in the following articles.
 
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